21 October 1989
Giovanni Borelli’s design for a submarine, as shown in R. McNeill Alexander’s review of his On the Movement of Animals (30 September), is one of the classics of the 17th century Golden Age of monstrously dangerous underwater schemes, and has an intriguing history of its own.
The actual design is not original to Borelli: it uses the same very dubious system of leather buoyancy bags as a submarine that had actually be sw swarovski uk arovski uk en constructed and demonstrated in the Thames by the Dutchman Cornelius van Drebbel in 1620, allegedly with James I as a passenger. Sadly, it lacks the Drebbel boat’s highly mysterious ‘chemical liquor’ device for purifying the boat’s air one of the
Another very similar rowed, bagged submarine, the Timsah (Crocod swa swarovski uk rovski uk ile), was designed by a Turk, Ibrahim Effendi, and demonstrated at Constantinople in 1719. It sank, but its snorkel (possibly the first on a .